Saturday, February 22, 2020

:נ Respect for Bread

והתניא כשם שאין זורקין את הפת כך אין זורקין את האוכלין א"ל והתניא אף על פי שאין זורקין את הפת אבל זורקין את האוכלין אלא לא קשיא הא במידי דממאיס הא במידי דלא ממאיס ...וזורקין לפניהם קליות ואגוזים בימות החמה אבל לא בימות הגשמים אבל לא גלוסקאות לא בימות החמה ולא בימות הגשמים
רש"י ד"ה אבל לא גלוסקאות. שהרי אף בימות החמה הן נמאסין בזריקתן
It seems clear from the גמרא that although throwing food is only problematic if the food will become disgusting as a result, such a stipulation does not exist for bread. It would seem that it is more than a matter of whether anything will actually happen to the bread. Because bread is considered more חשוב we are forbidden from throwing it under all circumstances. 

That makes the above רש"י somewhat puzzling. The גמרא asserts that one doesn't throw גלוסקאות - definitely a bread product - in the winter or the summer. Based on the preceding a גמרא, I would have explained that it is because throwing bread is always forbidden. Why, then does רש"י explain that the reason it is forbidden is because bread will become disgusting if thrown even in the summer? Whether or not it becomes disgusting is not the issue.

[5780 addendum] See the discussion in the comments below. It certainly seems that תוספות understood the גמרא the same way I am proposing:
תוספות ד"ה אין זורקין... ואין זורקין את הפת אפילו לא ממאיס


  1. On the contrary, it is clear from the gemara that bread always becomes disgusting to people when it is thrown, even in the summer when the ground is dry.
    Thus the first baraissa says that just as one cannot throw bread (ever, because this will always make the bread disgusting - Rashi) so too one cannot throw any food (which implies that all food become disgusting whenever they are thrown).
    But the second baraissa says that one is allowed to throw food. The gemara answers the apparent contradiction by saying that other foods do not always become disgusting when thrown, for example nuts falling on dry ground (which people will happily eat after dusting off the dirt).

    1. Rashi never says that bread will always become disgusting no matter where or when it is thrown. He only asserted that when it is thrown on the ground it will become disgusting no matter what the time of year. The statement in the first ברייתא is deliberately general. It speaks nothing of time or place. And still, it is always forbidden. The stipulation of הא במידי דממאיס הא במידי דלא ממאיס is made to resolve the discrepancy between the two different rulings regarding other foods.

      That which bread is given a different stature is evident from רש"י just above, describing why one may not pass the wine over the bread - שלא ישפך על הפת ותהא הפת בזויה - we are not concerned that the bread become disgusting, rather, it will become disgraced!